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特朗普能取消大多数庇护保护吗?权利团体发誓要起诉

2019-07-17 10:19   美国新闻网   - 

 

特朗普政府周一宣布全面限制后,人权组织誓言将迅速采取行动,这些限制将阻止美国边境的大部分庇护申请。

美国国土安全部周一在一份声明中宣布了与司法部的联合规则,声称这将“加强庇护程序的完整性”

根据预计将于周二在《联邦公报》上公布的新规定,美国可以拒绝任何在前往美国边境途中未能在另一个国家申请保护的人获得庇护。

虽然该规则确实为寻求庇护者规定了例外,这些寻求庇护者要么证明他们符合“严重形式的人口贩运受害者”的定义,要么通过没有参加保护寻求庇护者公约的国家进入美国,但实际上将会看到大多数中美洲寻求庇护者,包括无人陪伴的儿童,被驱逐出美国边境。

性别与难民研究中心(Center for Gender & Refugee Studies)在回应该提议的一份声明中表示:“这项新规定将有效地关闭美墨边境寻求庇护者的大门,包括独自旅行的无人陪伴儿童,这标志着特朗普政府再次可耻地试图改写我们的移民法,背弃难民。”。

该组织补充说,新的授权将有效地“将美国和墨西哥边境的人道主义危机转移到更南的地方,将责任转移到资源不如美国充足、没有能力满足寻求庇护者迫切需求的国家”

司法部长威廉·巴尔在一份声明中称,该规则“是国会授权限制庇护资格的合法行使”,以回应该国“完全被在南部边境逮捕和处理数十万外国人的相关负担所压垮”

下图由提供Statista,显示了在美国获得庇护的人数

Asylum U.S. statista

在美国获得庇护的人数STATISTA

然而,权利团体认为新的规定是不合法的,美国公民自由联盟发誓要采取法律行动。

“特朗普政府正试图单方面逆转我国保护那些逃离危险的人的法律和道德承诺,”美国公民自由联盟移民权利项目副主任李·格尔纳特在一份声明中说。"这项新规定显然是非法的,我们将迅速起诉。"

南方贫困法律中心移民司法项目的高级监督律师梅利莎·克劳也谴责了这项提议的规则,声称它将“从本质上阻止任何来自被围困的中美洲国家的人在美国获得庇护,而将他们困在除‘安全’条件之外的任何条件下。”

乌鸦警告说:“这将对无数逃离危险和迫害的移民造成可怕的后果。”。

克里斯提·德培尼亚(Kristie De Peñ)是总部设在华盛顿特区的尼斯坎恩中心的移民主任和高级顾问,他在对拟议规则进行分析时表示,该规则将有效地“阻止所有抵达南部边境的人——除加拿大或墨西哥国民之外——申请庇护,如果他们首先过境另一个国家,而在那里他们未能申请人道主义救济,也未能获得最终裁定。”

“毫无疑问,这项法规将面临法律挑战,”她在尼斯坎恩中心网站上发表的一篇帖子中说。

德培尼亚指出,“几十年的司法先例支持司法部长和DHS确定——和改变——接受庇护资格要求的能力”,她说,“不清楚判例法是否授权对申请庇护的能力进行监管,这本身就有好处(像其他形式的救济一样)

“例如,除了对第三国寻求庇护者的全面禁止之外,该规则还要求对拒绝遣返的证据和《禁止酷刑公约》的保护承担更高的责任,这些保护以前与庇护申请审查捆绑在一起,并受到同样的举证责任。毫无疑问,这一权威将受到强烈挑战,”她说。

最终,德培尼亚说,“牢记庇护的精神和目的是很重要的。”

她说:“谁可以申请庇护地位一直受到国际法的广泛管辖,在国内,受到双边安全第三国协议和安全迁移考虑的制约。”。“现在需要保护的人越来越多,这不应该促使我们想出如何逃避责任,而应该积极影响这些条件,帮助那些受其影响的人。国会有责任这样做;不应由法院来审查行政改革。”

Border

2019年6月29日,墨西哥,下加利福尼亚州,普拉亚斯·德·蒂华纳,一个男孩穿过美国和墨西哥的边界围栏。特朗普政府宣布了一项规则,将阻止很大一部分庇护申请。

CAN DONALD TRUMP STOP ASYLUM PROTECTIONS? RIGHTS GROUPS VOW TO SUE

After the Trump administration announced sweeping restrictions on Monday that will block a significant share of asylum claims at the U.S. border, rights groups vowed to take swift action.

The Department of Homeland Security announced its proposed joint rule with the Department of Justice in a statement Monday, claiming that it would "enhance the integrity of the asylum process."

Under the new regulations, which are expected to be published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, the U.S. can deny asylum to anyone who has failed to apply for protections in another country that they have passed through on their way to the American border.

While the rule does make an exception for asylum seekers who either demonstrate that they satisfy the definition of a "victim of a severe form of trafficking in persons" or who have made their way to the U.S. through countries that did not participate in conventions enshrining the protection of asylum seekers, it will effectively see the majority of Central American asylum seekers, including unaccompanied children, turned away from the U.S. border.

"This new rule will effectively slam the door on asylum seekers at the U.S.-Mexico border, including unaccompanied children traveling alone, and marks yet another shameful attempt by the Trump Administration to rewrite our immigration laws and turn its back on refugees," the Center for Gender & Refugee Studies said in a statement responding to the proposed rule.

The organization added that the new mandate would effectively "relocate the humanitarian crisis at the U.S.-Mexico border further south, shifting responsibility to countries that are less well-resourced than the United States and ill-equipped to address the urgent needs of asylum seekers."

In a statement, Attorney General William Barr asserted that the rule "is a lawful exercise of authority provided by Congress to restrict eligibility for asylum" in response to the country being "completely overwhelmed by the burdens associated with apprehending and processing hundreds of thousands of aliens along the southern border. "

The graphic below, provided by Statista, illustrates the number of individuals granted asylum in the U.S.

Asylum U.S. statista

Number of individuals granted asylum in the U.S.STATISTA

However, rights groups have argued that the new regulations are anything but lawful, with the American Civil Liberties Union vowing to take legal action.

"The Trump administration is trying to unilaterally reverse our country's legal and moral commitment to protect those fleeing danger," said Lee Gelernt, deputy director of the ACLU's Immigrants' Rights Project in a statement. "This new rule is patently unlawful and we will sue swiftly."

Melissa Crow, senior supervising attorney of the Immigrant Justice Project at the Southern Poverty Law Center, also condemned the proposed rule, asserting that it would "essentially prevent anyone from besieged Central American countries from obtaining asylum in the United States and instead would trap them in anything but 'safe' conditions."

"It would have dire consequences for countless migrants fleeing danger and persecution," Crow warned.

In an analysis of the proposed rule, Kristie De Peña, who serves as director of immigration and senior counsel for the Washington, D.C.-based Niskanen Center, said that the rule would effectively "preclude everyone—other than a Canadian or Mexican national—arriving at the southern border from applying for asylum if they first transited through another country where they failed to apply for and receive a final determination on humanitarian relief there."

"Without question, there will be legal challenges to the regulation," she said in a post published on the Niskanen Center's website.

While De Peña noted that "decades of judicial precedent supports the ability of the Attorney General and DHS to determine—and change—requirements of eligibility for receiving asylum," she said it "is not clear that the case law authorizes regulation of the ability to apply for asylum, which has benefits (like other forms of relief) in and of itself."

"For instance, in addition to the general ban on third-country asylum seekers, the rule requires a higher burden on proof for withholding of removal and Convention Against Torture (CAT) protections that were previously bundled with asylum claim review and were subject to the same burden of proof. Undoubtedly, this authority will be emphatically challenged," she said.

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Ultimately, De Peña said it is "important to keep in mind the spirit and purpose of asylum."

"Who may apply for asylum status has always been governed broadly by international law, and domestically, by bilateral safe third-country agreements and safe relocation considerations," she said. "That more people need protection now should not spur us to figure out how to avoid responsibility, but to positively affect those conditions and assist those impacted by them. Responsibility to do so lies with Congress; it should not fall to the courts to review administrative changes."

Border

A boy looks through the U.S.-Mexico border fence in Playas de Tijuana, Baja California state, on June 29, 2019, Mexico. The Trump administration has announced a rule that will block a significant share of asylum applications.GUILLERMO ARIAS/GETTY

 

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